12th Class Physics Notes Of All Chapters (Federal Board) | PDF

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Chapter 12 – Electrostatics Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs 

The first chapter is about electrostatistics – a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

  • Coulomb’s Law
  • Coulomb’s Law is an equation from physics. It explains how two things with electric charge, that are very close together, will interact. If they have the same kind of charge, they will push away from each other. If they have different kinds of charge, they will be pulled towards each other.
  • Coulomb’s Law is a bit like Newton’s Gravity Law. But there are some differences. Coulomb’s Law explains electric forces instead of gravity forces. And it works for much smaller distances than gravity does.
  • Coulomb’s Law: Definition & Examples
  • Coulomb’s law is the mathematical equation that describes the force of attraction or repulsion between two point electric charges. A charged particle’s electrostatic force is directly proportional to their electric charges and inversely proportional to their distance.
  • The equation for Coulomb’s law is similar to Newton’s universal law of gravitation, which describes gravitational forces. This makes sense because both electric forces and gravitational forces are conservative forces, meaning the work done by these forces does not depend on the path taken, but only on the initial and final positions. 
  • Thus, we can treat electric forces as a function of distance only. In addition, work done by an electric force can be calculated using Coulomb’s law.
  • Basic Forces of Nature
  • Electric Field Lines
  • Guass’s Law
  • Much more!

Chapter 13 – Current Electricity Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs

Complementing the first chapter, this chapter will study another major aspect of electric charges – current electricity.

  • Electric Current
  • Ohm’s Law
  • Joule’s Law
  • Electromotive Force(emf)
  • Rules of Krichhoff’s
  • Much More!

Chapter 14 – Electromagnetism Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs 

Seems like the curriculum is all about electric charges in HSSC part II. Electromagnetism is another major concept in physics. Chapter 14 will discover:

  • Magnetic Field
  • Right Hand Rule
  • Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Density
  • Ampere’s Law
  • Cathode Ray Oscilloscope(CRO)
  • Ammeter
  • Much More!

Chapter 15- Electromagnetic Induction Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs

From this chapter onwards, the curriculum becomes a bit tricky and difficult. You might need to take help from youtube videos and lectures to understand these concepts. This Chapter 15 talks about:

  • Lenz’s Law
  • Faraday’s Law
  • Much more

Chapter 16- Alternating Current Notes

This Chapter 16 talks about:

  • Instantaneous value
  •  peak value and peak to peak value
  • Root Means Square(rms)
  • Phase of A.C
  • Phase lag and Phase lead
  • R-C and R-L series Circuit
  • Much more

Chapter 17- Physics Of Solid Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs

This Chapter 17  talks about:

  • Classification of Solid
  • Difference between Stress and Strain
  • Modulus of Elasticity
  • Energy Band Theory
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic semi Conductors
  • Much more

Chapter 18- Electronics Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs

This Chapter 18 talks about:

  • P-n junction, Depletion region and Potential Barrier
  • Difference Between Full-Wave Rectification and Half-Wave Rectification
  • Working and Application of light emitting light diode 
  • Working and Application of Photo diode
  • Transistors
  • Much more 

Chapter 19- Dawn Of Modern Physics Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs

This Chapter 19 talks about:

  • Classical Physics
  • Quantum Theory 
  • Theory of Relativity
  • Frames of reference, Inertial and Non-inertial frame of reference 
  • Energy-Mass relation
  • NAVSTAR navigation system
  • Block body radiation
  • Photon
  • Much more

Chapter 20- Atomic Spectra Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs

This Chapter 20 talks about:

  • Spectroscopy
  • Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom
  • Difference between of energies of orbital and free electron
  • Hydrogen emission spectrum
  • Construction and working of X-rays production unit
  • Laser and purpose of laser
  • Much more

Chapter 21- Nuclear Physics Notes

Content: Short and Long Answers | Solved Exercises | MCQs 

This Chapter 21 talks about:

  • Atomic Nucleus
  • Atomic number
  • Isotopes
  • Mass spectrograph
  • Radioactivity
  • Phenomena of the half-life of radioactivity
  • Much more

We hope these notes, together with solved exercises, will aid your understanding and preparation. Feel free to give your feedback and ask questions in the comment section. Best of luck for the exam session.

12th Class Notes

These notes are designed to help students excel in their studies. They are available in FREE PDF format and cover all the important topics in the Class 12 Physics syllabus for the Federal board FBISE.