10th Class Chemistry Notes for Punjab Board (Carvan Book)


10th Class Chemistry Notes

Last Updated: 6th April 2022

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See Also: 10th Class Notes (For All Subjects)

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Let’s get down to business, shall we? Here are the notes of all the chapters listed in an order:


The first chapter in class 10th chemistry textbook is titled Chemical Equilibrium. It is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations that have no further tendency to change with time. The important topics of this chapter include:

  • Differentiate between irreversible reaction and reversible reaction.
  • Irreversible Reaction
  • The reaction which proceeds in one direction only is called irreversible reaction. The products formed once cannot be converted back to the reactants. Hence, the reaction is irreversible. For example, the decomposition of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) into ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) is an irreversible reaction. It is not possible to convert the products, NH3 and HCl back to NH4Cl. 
  • Reversible Reaction
  • The reaction which can go on in both directions, i.e., from reactants to products as well as from products to reactants is called reversible reaction. For example, in the Haber process for manufacturing ammonia, nitrogen and hydrogen react together under suitable conditions to form ammonia according to the equation N2 + 3H2 ⇄ 2NH3.
  • What is the equilibrium constant?
  • Equilibrium is a very powerful and useful concept in chemistry. It allows us to predict whether a process will proceed to completion, or whether it will reverse course and produce reactants instead of products. 

  • The equilibrium constant is a mathematical representation of this concept that can be used to make quantitative predictions. Although the concept of equilibrium is often introduced in the context of chemical systems, it's not limited to chemistry; equilibrium is a general property of any closed system.

  • The equilibrium constant is always expressed as the ratio of two concentration terms raised to powers that relate to their stoichiometric coefficients from the balanced chemical equation. 
  • What are irreversible reactions? Give a few characteristics of them.
  • Define the Law of Mass Action
  • Why at equilibrium state reaction does not stop?

The chapter becomes very grasping if you pay attention. Do you know?

A chemical reaction is a process whereby the chemical properties of a substance are changed by a rearrangement of the atoms in the substance. - Encyclopedia
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The simple definition of an acid is that it is a material that produces positive ions in solution whereas a base provides negative ions in solution. So what does this chapter have in store for us?

  • A solution of hydrochloric acid is 0.02M. What is its pH value?
  • Write a note on types of salt?
  • What are the indicators, universal indicators, and pH meter?
  • Explain Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases with examples.
  • What do you know about Stomach acidity?

Do you know?

Milk has an acid called lactic acid.
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      • Size: 6.9 MB | Pages: 38 | Content: Solved Exercise, MCQs, Short Questions 

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This chapter may test your wits to the final level but be patient. Organic chemistry is really lie a game and once you know the rules, you’re destined to win.

This is a branch of chemistry that deals with carbon compounds (other than simple salts such as carbonates, oxides, and carbides). The important topics are:

  • What are the functional groups? Give an example of Ketonic Group, Aldehydic Grup, And Carboxyl Group.
  • Who rejected the vital force theory and how?
  • What is the dot and cross formula?
  • Define an aromatic compound. Give an example.
  • What is the difference between n-propyl and isopropyl?
Do you know?
Carbon—with its four valence electrons—happens to be tetravalent, or capable of bonding to four other atoms at once. - Encyclopedia
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      • Size: 5.3 MB | Pages: 31 | Content: Solved Exercise, MCQs, Short Questions 

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It’s a relatively easier topic since you’ve already the more difficult one previously. Hydrocarbon is a class of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon, as alkane, methane, etc. The important topics to look forward to in this chapter are:

  • Write down two ways you can prepare Alkanes with?
  • Write the preparation of Alkenes?
  • Write the uses of ethene?
  • Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons?
  • Why alkanes are used as fuel?

Do you know?

The hydrogen and carbon are bonded with non-polar covalent bonds. Because of its lack of polar covalent bonds, hydrocarbons cannot create hydrogen bonds with water and are hydrophobic. - Kidzsearch
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A little piece of advice! Give extra attention to this chapter if you wish to select biology at intermediate level. It really is a crucial branch of study for medical studies ahead.

Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. The important topics are:

  • Give the classification of carbodhyes.
  • Describe hydrolysis of sucrose
  • What is protein? Write its composition
  • What are amino acids with their general formula?
  • Name the components of nucleotides in DNA
Do you know?
If you could type 60 words per minute, eight hours a day, it would take approximately 50 years to type the human genome. - Thoughtco
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It’s an interesting branch of chemistry since it always appears as a significant topic in global and regional politics. The atmosphere is the whole mass of air that surrounds the Earth in simple words. The important topics are:

  • Write a note of the Green House Effect?
  • How Ozone layer is depleted? Explain
  • What is the difference between primary and secondary pollution?
  • How acid rain is produced?
  • Justify ozone is beneficial to human beings.

Do you know?

99% of the atmosphere is made up of oxygen and nitrogen.
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      • Size: 4.2 MB | Pages: 20 | Content: Solved Exercise, MCQs, Short Questions 

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Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. The important topics are:

  • How polarity of water molecular plays its role to dissolve the substance?
  • Explain hydrogen bonding in the water molecule
  • How Hardness in water is caused? Explain
  • Why water is considered to be a universal solvent?
  • How temporary hardness is removed by Clark's method?
Do you know?
27,000 trees are cut down each day so we can have Toilet Paper. - TheWorldCounts
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      • Size: 3.6 MB | Pages: 18 | Content: Solved Exercise, MCQs, Short Questions 

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The chemical industry comprises companies that produce industrial chemicals. The important topics are:

  • Explain the process of roasting
  • What is Solvay's process of manufacturing sodium carbonate
  • Explain Haber's process
  • Give the advantages of Solvay's process
  • What are the differences between Diesel Oil and Fuel Oil

Do you know?

The Haber process uses a catalyst mostly made up of iron. - Kidzsearch
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      • Size: 4.4 MB | Pages: 22 | Content: Solved Exercise, MCQs, Short Questions 

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Top Study World: 10th Class Chemistry Notes for Punjab Board (Carvan Book)
10th Class Chemistry Notes for Punjab Board (Carvan Book)
Here you can download FREE 10th class Chemistry notes in PDF for the Punjab Board students, and the solution of Carvan Book, and you can view online without downloading anything. One of the best notes you can find ever.
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