Essay On Mohenjo Daro (200 words)
Mohenjo Daro is an ancient city in the modern-day province of Sindh, Pakistan. It was one of the largest and most advanced settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization, which existed from approximately 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE. The name Mohenjo Daro means “Mound of the Dead” in Sindhi.
The city was discovered in the 1920s by archaeologist Sir John Marshall, who found a series of well-planned streets and buildings that suggested an advanced urban society. The city was built with baked bricks and had a sophisticated drainage system, public baths, and granaries.
Mohenjo Daro was believed to have been a center of trade and industry, with evidence of metallurgy, textile production, and a bustling marketplace. The people of Mohenjo Daro were also skilled in agriculture and irrigation, as evidenced by a sophisticated canal system.
Mohenjo Daro was eventually abandoned despite its advanced civilization, and its exact demise remains a mystery. Some theories suggest environmental factors such as flooding or drought, while others point to invasion or internal conflict.
Today, Mohenjo Daro is a UNESCO World Heritage site and a significant historical landmark. It provides insight into the ancient world and the remarkable achievements of human civilization over 5,000 years ago.
Essay On Mohenjo Daro (500 words)
Mohenjo Daro is an ancient city in present-day Pakistan’s Indus Valley region. It was one of the largest cities of the ancient world and is considered one of the most remarkable archaeological sites in South Asia. The city was discovered in the 1920s and excavated extensively in the 1930s by Sir John Marshall and his team.
Mohenjo Daro was founded around 2500 BCE and peaked between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE. The city was one of the early urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the three early civilizations of the ancient world, along with Mesopotamia and Egypt. The Indus Valley Civilization was known for its advanced urban planning, use of writing, and technological innovations.
The city was built on a grid pattern, with streets running perpendicular to each other. The buildings were made of baked bricks and were several stories high. The city was also equipped with a sophisticated drainage system, a marvel of engineering at the time. The drainage system was designed to keep the city clean and hygienic, and it is believed to have been one of the most advanced in the ancient world.
Mohenjo Daro was a significant center of trade and commerce in the Indus Valley Civilization. The city was located on the Indus River’s banks, a crucial artery of trade and transportation. The city was also known for producing luxury goods such as jewelry, pottery, and textiles.
The people of Mohenjo Daro were skilled in many different crafts and trades. Archaeologists have found evidence of metalworking, weaving, and pottery making in the city. The people of Mohenjo Daro also engaged in agriculture, and the surrounding area was rich in natural resources such as timber, minerals, and fertile land.
One of the most intriguing aspects of Mohenjo Daro is the lack of evidence of a centralized political system. Unlike other ancient cities, no palaces or temples suggest a strong central authority. This has led archaeologists to speculate that Mohenjo Daro was a city governed by a decentralized system of councils and committees.
The decline of Mohenjo Daro is still a mystery to archaeologists. The city was believed to be abandoned around 1900 BCE, possibly due to environmental changes such as a shift in the course of the Indus River or a drought. It is also possible that the city was destroyed by invaders or suffered from internal conflict.
Despite the mystery surrounding its decline, Mohenjo Daro remains a testament to the ingenuity and innovation of the Indus Valley Civilization. The city’s advanced urban planning, sophisticated drainage system, and skilled craftsmanship are a testament to the achievements of this ancient civilization. Mohenjo Daro continues to fascinate archaeologists and visitors alike, providing a window into the past and a glimpse of the marvels of an ancient civilization.